2023 Minimum Efficiency Standards
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the authority to establish minimum efficiency standards for air conditioning (AC) and heat pump (HP) equipment. The next set of energy efficiency increases will impact newly manufactured residential and commercial equipment and will take effect on January 1, 2023. For single-phase residential and light commercial central air conditioning systems, the requirements will vary by region.
Appendix M1: A New System of Measurement
For equipment manufactured after January 1, 2023, not only are the minimum standards changing, but a new test procedure will be required. This new test method is commonly referred to as Appendix M1, replacing Appendix M in the Code of Federal Regulations. For decades, we’ve used the classic metrics of SEER, EER and HSPF. Going forward, you’ll hear these metrics referred to as SEER2, EER2 and HSPF2.
Why is the Metric Changing?
The DOE test procedure has been updated to be more representative of installations in today’s homes and will be used to determine product ratings. This new system of measurement will apply to all single-phase air conditioners and heat pumps <65k BTU/HR.
What about Commercial Equipment?
Commercial single-phase air conditioners and heat pumps <65k BTU/HR (typically those in the 3-, 4- and 5-ton range) follow the residential standards. Commercial systems ≥65k BTU/HR also have new minimum efficiency levels going into effect in 2023 on a national basis, with compliance based on date of manufacture. Note that while the metrics of IEER and COP are not changing, IEER and COP minimum efficiency levels are increasing from DOE 2018 standard. EER requirements remain unchanged. See the table below for the 2023 requirements. At this time, DOE has not issued a new efficiency standard or metric that applies to the category of small 3-phase systems, 5-ton and below, but these are under consideration.
See Ruud Regulatory Guide